Healthy range: 8 to 37 IU/L
Investigating the levels of liver enzyme ALT. When liver is without problem, the score on this test should be within the range. Anything above the range may indicate liver damage.
(or total protein test)
Healthy ratio: a bit over 1, favoring albumin
There are two types of protein in blood — albumin (see above) and globulin. The A/G ratio test compares levels of these proteins. Elevated levels could indicate a health condition needing attention.
Healthy ratio of BUN to creatinine: 10:1 to 20:1 (men and older individuals may be a bit higher)
This test reflects if kidneys are removing waste properly. High levels of creatinine, a by-product of muscle contractions, are excreted through the kidneys and suggest reduced kidney function.
Healthy range: 9.0 to 10.5 mg/dL (the elderly typically score a bit lower)
High calcium found in the bloodstream could indicate kidney problems; overly active thyroid or parathyroid glands; certain types of cancer, including lymphoma; problems with the pancreas; or a deficiency of vitamin D.
Healthy range: 98 to 106 mEq/L
This mineral is often measured as part of an electrolyte panel. A high-salt diet and/or certain medications are often responsible for elevations in chloride. Excess chloride may indicate an overly acidic environment in the body. It also could be a red flag for dehydration, multiple myeloma, kidney disorders, or adrenal gland dysfunction.
Healthy range: 0.5 to 1.1 mg/dL for women; 0.6 to 1.2 mg/dL for men (the elderly may be slightly lower)
This waste product is filtered by kidneys, so elevations could be an indication of a problem with kidney function.
Healthy range: 70 to 99 mg/dL for the average adult (the elderly tend to score higher even when they are healthy)
The fasting blood sugar test is performed after at least 6 hours without food or drink other than water. Blood sugar levels can be influenced by food or drinks ingested recently, also by current stress levels, medications taken.
Healthy range: 2.4 to 4.1 mg/dL
Phosphorus plays an important role in bone health, relating to calcium levels. Too much phosphorus could indicate a problem with kidneys or the parathyroid gland. Alcohol abuse, long-term antacid use, excessive intake of diuretics or vitamin D, and malnutrition can also elevate phosphorus levels.
Healthy range: 3.7 to 5.2 mEq/L
Potassium is essential for relaying nerve impulses, maintaining font-size: 16pt;proper muscle functions, and regulating heartbeats. Diuretics, drugs, taken for high blood pressure, can cause low levels of potassium.
Healthy range: 135 to 145 mEq/L
Sodium, a member of electrolyte family, assists our body to balance water levels and assists with nerve impulses and muscle contractions. Irregularities in sodium levels may indicate dehydration; disorders of the adrenal glands; excessive intake of salt, corticosteroids, or pain-relieving medications; or problems with the liver or kidneys.